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Fungal Rhinosinusitis

Fungal Rhinosinusitis

We all inhale fungal spores every day and these are usually trapped in the mucous and cleared not resulting in any sequelae. However, there are times when sinusitis is caused and this can be divided into two groups, the invasive and the non-invasive form.  In the...

Fungal Disease in ENT

Fungal Disease in ENT

Fungi are often commensals that can either be on the skin or inhaled and often don’t produce any problems.  They can however infect, and this is usually when there is decreased local or systemic immunity.  Any organ can be involved and this is very commonly...

Management of Septal Deviation

Management of Septal Deviation

The nose is first examined using a headlight which will also assess the external nose.  A rigid or a flexible telescope is then used to assess the inside of the nose including the back of the nose and sinus openings.  Investigations may then be required, for instance,...

Deviated Nasal Septum

Deviated Nasal Septum

This is extremely common, especially in Caucasians.  Other causes are developmental, which may be associated with a high-arched palate.  Deviations can run in the family with parents and or siblings having the same problem.  Trauma is often associated...

Nasal Septal Overview

Nasal Septal Overview

The septum is a thin tissue in the middle of the nose separating the nose into two chambers.  It is made up of rigid bone towards the back and flexible cartilage towards the front of the nose.  It is lined by normal mucosa.  There are a number of causes of abnormal...

Management of Epiphora

Management of Epiphora

The Ophthalmologist will make the primary diagnosis and investigate the problem including inserting dye into the eye and watching for clearance down the drainage system. The Eye Specialist may also probe the drainage ducts and flush them out. The management will be...

Causes of Epiphora

Causes of Epiphora

There are a number of different causes including the following: Allergy, infections or conjunctivitis and pink-eye, blepharitis (eye lid infection), dry eyes, styes, meibomian cysts, entropion (inward position of the lids), trauma which may be smoke or due to...

Definition of Epiphora

Definition of Epiphora

Epiphora means watery eyes as opposed to lacrimation which occurs during, for instance, crying. The normal physiology and anatomy of the tear system is complex and the tears arise from the lacrimal gland which is located superiorally and laterally in the eye. The...

Nasal Blockage – Investigations and Treatment

Nasal Blockage – Investigations and Treatment

A history is followed by an examination which will include a nasal endoscopy.  This will result in an accurate working diagnosis and will help you decide whether further imaging is required.  Plain x-rays such as a lateral neck is not very useful but a CT scan and an...

Nasal – Sequela

Nasal – Sequela

The consequences of nasal obstruction in children are usually stertor with or without apnoea.  This can result in cardiac failure which is seen in the younger child usually about the age of one.  A blocked nose can affect teeth and palate growth with malalignment of...